Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet (2024)

Abstract

As the closest transiting hot Jupiter to Earth, HD 189733b has been the benchmark planet for atmospheric characterization 1,2,3. It has also been the anchor point for much of our theoretical understanding of exoplanet atmospheres from composition 4, chemistry 5,6, aerosols 7 to atmospheric dynamics 8, escape 9 and modeling techniques 10,11. Prior studies of HD 189733b have detected carbon and oxygen-bearing molecules H2O and CO 12,13 in the atmosphere. The presence of CO2 and CH4 has been claimed 14,15 but later disputed 12,16,17. The inferred metallicity based on these measurements, a key parameter in tracing planet formation locations 18, varies from depletion 19,20 to enhancement 21,22, hindered by limited wavelength coverage and precision of the observations. Here we report detections of H2O (13.4 sigma), CO2 (11.2 sigma), CO (5 sigma), and H2S (4.5 sigma) in the transmission spectrum (2.4-5 micron) of HD 189733b. With an equilibrium temperature of ~ 1200K, H2O, CO, and H2S are the main reservoirs for oxygen, carbon, and sulfur. Based on the measured abundances of these three major volatile elements, we infer an atmospheric metallicity of 3-5 times stellar. The upper limit on the methane abundance at 5 sigma is 0.1 ppm which indicates a low carbon-to-oxygen ratio (<0.2), suggesting formation through the accretion of water-rich icy planetesimals. The low oxygen-to-sulfur and carbon-to-sulfur ratios also support the planetesimal accretion formation pathway 23.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Guangwei Fu&David K. Sing

  2. School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

    Luis Welbanks&Michael Line

  3. Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

    Drake Deming,Jegug Ih,Arjun B. Savel,Eliza M.-R. Kempton&Matt Nixon

  4. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

    Julie Inglis&Heather A. Knutson

  5. Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

    Michael Zhang

  6. Department of Physics, Utah Valley University, Orem, UT, USA

    Joshua Lothringer

  7. Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO, USA

    Julianne I. Moses

  8. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

    Everett Schlawin

  9. Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA

    Gregory Henry

  10. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA

    Thomas Greene

  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

    Dana R. Louie

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  1. Guangwei Fu

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  2. Luis Welbanks

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  5. Michael Zhang

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  6. Joshua Lothringer

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  8. Julianne I. Moses

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  9. Everett Schlawin

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  10. Heather A. Knutson

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  12. Thomas Greene

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  13. David K. Sing

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  14. Arjun B. Savel

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  15. Eliza M.-R. Kempton

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  16. Dana R. Louie

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  17. Michael Line

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  18. Matt Nixon

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Guangwei Fu.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs 1-7 and Supplementary Tables 1-3.

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Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet (4)

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Fu, G., Welbanks, L., Deming, D. et al. Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet. Nature (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07760-y

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Hydrogen sulfide and metal-enriched atmosphere for a Jupiter-mass exoplanet (2024)
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